How to use dd (Linux copy tool) with progress indicator

/dev/sdcdd, the ubiquitous copy tool of Unix/Linux, now comes in with a decent built-in progress indicator.

You can run it by the command-line option: status=progress


dd status=progress if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb

Notice how I didn’t add the bs option and used the default. In my experiences the default works best.

Tested on: Ubuntu

Top 15 Countries by Coders

I have analyzed the data from HackerRank (December 7 2016) to find out the Top 15 countries in the world by cumulative ranking as well as by the number of Institutions in Top 50.

In order to figure out which colleges have the best coders, HackerRank hosted a major University Rankings Competition. Over 5,500 students from 126 schools from around the world participated in the event.

Cumulative Coder Rank of Top 15 Countries

India is the clear leader with cumulative score of 2901.04, more than double of US with cumulative rank of 1113.22. Russia is a distant third with less than 1/2 of US rank. But how does it fare in the total number of Institutions in the Top 50?

Country Sum – Rank
India 2901.74
US 1113.22
Russia 668.07
Romania 412.35
Canada 398.8
China 387.18
Vietnam 321.99
Ukraine 255.83
Sweden 231.23
Czech Republic 188.67
Turkey 157.56
Kazakhstan 138.87
Poland 130.34
Belgium 125.91
South Korea 124.65

Note: The score / rank of a College is weighted average and hence can be summed to get cumulative scores.

Top 15 Countries by Total Count of Institutions in Top 50

22 Institutions in India rank in the Top 50. US, second placed, is by contrast can boast of only 8 Institutions, almost 1/3 of India.

Country Count – Rank
India 22
US 8
Romania 3
Canada 2
Russia 2
Belgium 1
Bosnia & Herzegovina 1
China 1
Czech Republic 1
Estonia 1
Kazakhstan 1
Mexico 1
Poland 1
South Korea 1
Sweden 1

No wonder India is the top destination for outsourcing across the world. It produces very large number of Top Coders according to HackerRank data.

Within India the top 2 Institutions are IIT, Indore followed by IIT, Kanpur.

Java: The Most Popular Programming Language Today

Several research independently confirms Java as the most popular programing language today and as such can be considered the safest bet for someone looking to make a career in programming or looking for a career change. Let’s look in details below.

The TIOBE Index

The TIOBE Index for February 2017 indicates Java is the most popular programming language today. Java’s popularity is almost double that of the next contender C.

The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the number of skilled engineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors. Popular search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube and Baidu are used to calculate the ratings. It is important to note that the TIOBE index is not about the best programming language or the language in which most lines of code have been written.

PYPL PopularitY of Programming Language

The PYPL PopularitY of Programming Language Index is created by analyzing how often language tutorials are searched on Google.

The more a language tutorial is searched, the more popular the language is assumed to be. It is a leading indicator. The raw data comes from Google Trends.

If you believe in collective wisdom, the PYPL Popularity of Programming Language index can help you decide which language to study, or which one to use in a new software project.

PYPL too indicates Java as the leading programming language.


CodingDojo diligently compiled job data from indeed in 2016 which shows Java is the top in-demand programming language, unless you consider SQL as programming language. does not cite sources but states Java as the most popular programming language. Larry Kim, Founder and CTO of WordStreaam, gives a nice summary:

Java is top pick as one of the most popular programming languages, used for building server-side applications to video games and mobile apps. It’s also the core foundation for developing Android apps, making it a favorite of many programmers. With its WORA mantra (write once, run anywhere), it’s designed to be portable and run happily across multiple software platforms.

So if you are searching for a programming language to learn to build your career then look no further and start coding in Java.

Footnote: Glassdoor data indicates Software Architect is the highest paying job in this field, followed closely by Software Development Manager.

Key differences between Understanding and Learning (Memorization)

Many Educational Institutes, even today, do not focus on understanding. Their tests can be easily passed with memorization. This weakens the foundation of the students and adversely affects his future performance in professional engagements. Let’s look at the key differences between understanding and memorization and why understanding should be the priority for all students.

Memorization is simple. We all know that by repeated reading of any subject matter we can remember it by heart and be able to regurgitate (repeat information without analyzing or comprehending it) on demand, even matching similar sounding questions with the answer you have learned. And that is pretty much all you need to get through in most school systems and even most colleges.

Understanding, on the other hand, is knowing the underlying ideas and concepts so well that you can then explain them in your own words, even if you do not remember any of the terminology used. It allows you to develop insights that comes from inductive or deductive reasoning on the concepts.

You know you have understood something well when you can apply it to real life situations and clearly explain it to a layman with ease.

With understanding your can identify the similarities and differences between similar sounding ideas on your own.

Understanding is the key to advancing knowledge and discovering new knowledge.

Understanding is what is useful in real life, learning alone takes us nowhere.

Today computers can store much more facts than you will ever learn and can regurgitate it faster, even for complex queries (like Google). Instead of focusing your energies on memorization, which is anyways a losing and pointless battle, why not focus on understanding the topic at hand?

You will find that when you understand any topic, you tend to remember the key words and phrases too, thereby serving both the purposes of your exams as well as much bigger purpose of excelling real life and profession.

It became well-known, who labored hot celebrities prior to they became famous

News in regards to the best celebs as well as their past jobs

Now they really are white-toothed smile from the internet pages of shiny magazines and gracefully maneuver together the crimson carpet. But after every one of these hot celebrities could not be distinguished from regular young onerous workers.

Brad Pitt

Today, this renowned handsome person is admired by thousands and thousands of ladies round the world, and at the time they could not even detect him relating to the street, given that … just would not have observed him. It happens to be problematic to look at charisma less than a thick layer of artificial feathers. An individual for the for starters functions for the actor was a quick meals chain, the place he identified as the attendees on the suit of a immense chicken. Also, prior to when transforming into an individual on the celebs, he attained bucks, sitting down in the steering wheel of a luxurious limousine, created to drive the stripper dancers.

Pitt contains a good deal to talk about using a colleague while in the movie home Megan Fox, who also became an excellent intercourse symbol, barely eliminating the preposterous suit. Brian Austin Green’s spouse, well known for her job on the films “The System of Jennifer” and “Transformers,” as soon as also blushed under an absurd outfit within the whim of the first of all boss. On a single with the evening displays Fox confessed that she worked as being a vendor of smoothies from tropical fruits. 1 with the objects of her deal was dressing inside of a banana costume as soon as every week to appeal to patrons. Currently, viewing the star, you could potentially confidently claim that attracting potential customers could other talents of your lady, to cover which beneath “banana” clothing – just a criminal offense.

Ashton Kutcher

Time has proven that Ashton Kutcher will be able to earn hundreds of thousands, not simply showing in very popular movies, but also applying his investor’s aptitude and competently purchasing promising start-ups. On the hands in the young Kutcher, the money was not so eagerly siphoned off. Just before decorating together with his smiling encounter very first handles of vogue journals, and then internet pages of Forbes, Kutcher labored as the cleaner for the grain processing plant.

Evangeline Lilly

A rather younger stewardess named Evangeline merely a thirty day period served passengers on American airlines. Then the entire world got an awesome actress in her facial area. Ironically, in a society of fabulous glory Lilly also flew over the plane – the a particular that crashed within the commencing of your cult collection “Lost”. As the actress admits, she hated the operate of the stewardess and didn’t miss out on her time in the slightest degree. And on condition that given that then she managed to star inside a amount of excellent films, we quickly assume her.

Deepfakes porn with Hollywood stars lost their previous shelter

Image Reddit blocked the local community Deepfakes, by which for that to start with time there have been phony pornoroliki when using the participation of Hollywood stars. As stated with the clarification of your portal, the expulsion is involved which includes a violation of your situations of use, specifically, given that with the publication of pornographic content with no consent of folks on the frame.

It was with this community that visual outcomes of the do the job of neural networks appeared for your to start with time, with the aid of which actresses’ heads have been attached to piquant films. Among many others, from the actions of porno-enthusiasts endured Taylor Swift, Scarlett Johansson, Selena Gomez, Emma Watson, Gal Gadot. Also, an instruction was delivered for general public entry to develop bogus video clips.

On February 7, the leadership for the world’s most significant pornhosting services Pornhub also made a decision to eliminate deepfakes considering the participation of superstars. Associates belonging to the platform mentioned that pretend pornographic clips are built and published with no consent in the “participants” of your video.

A related placement was expressed from the management of Twitter. The administration with the social network intends to block accounts that upload screenshots or one way links to faux pornographers considering the participation of well known ladies.

According to attorneys, Hollywood actresses can utilize to the courtroom that has a criticism with regard to the creator within the software and gain.

The most brave stars

In Hollywood, notice a whole new development: the period of full domination of sentimental sweet-cheeked male stars with a penetrating glance finished. Obtaining occupied a distinct segment of idols of teens, technology of youthful stably loses towards senior colleagues with a set. With the rankings for the most attractive guys, those who are about to two times of bristles, age roles and brutal pictures are once more best. The foremost convincing sex symbols of our time.


Performer in the function of Sherlock Holmes Robert Downey Jr. performs from the complex purpose of “a man with no brakes”, which, other than him, depends only on Johnny Depp. Regardless of what he was performing within the screen – tried to get out of the intricacies of Professor Moriarty or saved mankind with the go well with of an iron person – full destruction is inevitable. In life, the actor has repeatedly sank towards the particularly base and manufactured dizzy rollbacks. Issues with medication and liquor, subsequent dismissal with the studio, divorce from his wife … However the actor managed to discover the energy to triumphantly return with the environment of huge cinema and turn into, amid other stuff, a intercourse symbol from the period. The distinctive attributes of his company allure are an unmatched feeling of humor and characteristic theatrical gestures.


Athletic build up and brutal physical appearance designed Diesel by far the most trendy hero with the militants with the starting within the zero. Observe the high-speed mode – the recommendation is not for Vin Diesel. The actor is made use of to dwelling at the limit of what’s permissible: the best lavish females (his novels are recognised with fellow filmmakers Michelle Rodriguez along with the model of Pavlo Harbkov), one of the most high priced autos, the largest charges. Twelve yrs following the deafening premiere of your for starters section of the “Fast and also Furious” the latest sixth sequence was launched. The action-thriller once again had a resounding prosperity as well as a file box company. Now the the moment sternest man in the display is happily married with the Mexican design Palome Jimenez, the few brings up two young boys and girls.

How to Easily Configure WiFi in Raspberry Pi

Any version of Raspberry Pi can be very easily configured with WiFi access. Coupled with ssh or vnc, it allows you to manage your Pi remotely. Here is the simplest way I could think of, illustrated by a screenshot and detailed below.

Once your Raspberry Pi boots up, you will get to this shiny screen. Now open a Terminal by clicking on the black square icon on top-left of the screen.Screenshot from 2017-01-04 11-29-18

This opens a Terminal where you type in:

sudo leafpad /etc/network/interfaces

This opens up a notepad-like editor. Make three changes to the text as shown in the highlighted section:

  1. Change manual to dhcp in the line starting with “iface wlan0”
  2. Replace wifi_id with the Wireless Access ID / SSID
  3. Replace password with your actual password for Wireless Access

Now save it (Ctrl-S) like notepad and exit it. The terminal should still remain open.

Now either reboot the Pi or restart the network with the following command on Terminal (don’t forget to press <Enter> after you typed):

sudo service networking restart

Wait for a few minutes for the WiFi to come up. On latest Raspbian with PIXEL, you can verify by seeing the two blue arrows in opposite direction, as can be seen from the screenshot.

Steps to secure and protect your Skype account from Hacking

Skype accounts are being hacked since at least August last year. Breached Skype accounts are used to send thousands of spam messages before they’re locked by Microsoft. The owners then have to regain access and that is when most find out about it. Skype has fallen victim to similar attacks before, and hackers were able to spoof messages on the system in 2015 after using lists of stolen usernames and passwords to gain access to accounts.


This wave of attack appears to be growing in size, and Skype users who opted for Microsoft’s two-factor security are also vulnerable. Microsoft offers the ability to link a Skype and Microsoft Account together to make sign-in and security easier. It turns out that Microsoft keeps your original Skype account password separate so that it can still be used to access the service with a Skype username. If that password isn’t secure then hackers can use it to gain access to your Skype account, bypassing any two-factor authentication provided by Microsoft. Essentially Microsoft has left a backdoor open to their vaunted two-factor security! It can be safely assumed that the new wave of attack is dictionary based and Skype / Microsoft allows unlimited login tries at some entry point.


The solution, in brief, is to switch to Microsoft’s two-factor security and then disable access by old method.

1. Update your Skype account to a Microsoft account:

  • Go to, if you’re already signed in, sign out.
  • Enter your Skype name and password when prompted and then select
  • Sign in.
  • If your Skype account is not updated already, you will be notified to update your account.
  • Select Next to continue.
  • You will be asked to add an email to your account, and verify that email.
  • Congrats, your Skype account is also a Microsoft account.

2. Ensure that your Accounts are fully merged:

  • Go to, if you’re already signed in, sign out.
  • Enter your Skype name, not your Microsoft Account email address, and use your Skype password to sign-in
  • If you’ve linked your Microsoft Account previously, you’ll be prompted to sign-in and merge the accounts to create a Skype alias

3. Disable Skype alias:

Once the two accounts are properly merged, Microsoft creates a Skype alias to let you keep signing in with a Skype username. Disable it under the aliases preferences, to ensure complete protection.

Maximum number of Files in a Directory

Different file systems in different Operating Systems has different limitations in the number of files that can be in a directory as determined by the underlying architecture.. Here is an overview of maximum of number of files that you can have in a directory and associated problems, if any, like performance.


  • Maximum number of files: 268,173,300
  • Maximum number of files per directory: 216 – 1 (65,535)
  • Maximum file size: 2 GiB – 1 without LFS, 4 GiB – 1 with


  • Maximum number of files: 232 – 1 (4,294,967,295)
  • Maximum file size
    • Implementation: 244 – 26 bytes (16 TiB – 64 KiB)
    • Theoretical: 264 – 26 bytes (16 EiB – 64 KiB)
  • Maximum volume size
    • Implementation: 232 – 1 clusters (256 TiB – 64 KiB)
    • Theoretical: 264 – 1 clusters


  • Maximum number of files: 1018
  • Maximum number of files per directory: ~1.3 × 1020 (performance issues past 10,000)
  • Maximum file size
    • 16 GiB (block size of 1 KiB)
    • 256 GiB (block size of 2 KiB)
    • 2 TiB (block size of 4 KiB)
    • 2 TiB (block size of 8 KiB)
  • Maximum volume size
    • 4 TiB (block size of 1 KiB)
    • 8 TiB (block size of 2 KiB)
    • 16 TiB (block size of 4 KiB)
    • 32 TiB (block size of 8 KiB)


  • Maximum number of files: minimum (volume Size / 213, number of Blocks)
  • Maximum file size: same as ext2
  • Maximum volume size: same as ext2


  • Maximum number of files: 232 – 1 (4,294,967,295)
  • Maximum number of files per directory: unlimited
  • Maximum file size: 244 – 1 bytes (16 TiB – 1)
  • Maximum volume size: 248 – 1 bytes (256 TiB – 1)